> Dada?


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Datum: 2000/06/28

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In the second and third decades of this century, a new kind of artistic
movement swept Europe and America. Its very name, "Dada"--two identical
syllables without the obligatory "-ism"--distinguished it from the long line
of avant-gardes which have determined the history of the arts in the last
200 years. Its proponents came from all parts of Europe and the United
States at a time when their native countries were battling one another in
the deadliest war ever known. They did not restrict themselves to being
painters, writers, dancers, or musicians; most of them were involved in
several art forms and in breaking down the boundaries which kept the arts
distinct from one another. Indeed, the Dadaists were not content to make
art. They wanted to affect all aspects of Western civilization, to take part
in the revolutionary changes which were the inevitable result of the chaos
of the First World War. They were not interested in writing books and
painting pictures which a public would admire in an uninvolved manner;
rather, they aimed to provoke the public into reacting to their activities:
to the Dadaists, a violently negative reaction was better that a passive
acceptance. The Dada movement was perhaps the most decisive single influence
on the development of twentieth-century art, and its innovations are so
pervasive as to be virtually taken for granted today. Because of its
importance for both artistic and social history, Dada has become the subject
of intense scholarly interest on the part of researchers in language,
literature, art, music, theater, sociology, the history of ideas--in fact,
every field which deals in some way with contemporary culture and
civilization. And the single most important bibliographic resource for these
scholars is the International Dada Archive at The University of Iowa.

What was Dada? Why is there a Dada Archive? And why, of all places, is it in

Of all the influential artistic movements which flourished in the first half
of the twentieth century, Dada is the one which most urgently requires an
intensive and exhaustive effort to preserve and make available its
documents. There are two reasons for this: the movement's inherent
importance for contemporary culture, and the ephemeral nature of its

Contemporary art as we know it could not have come into existence without
Dada. Virtually every artistic principle and device which underlies the
literature, music, theater, and visual arts of our time was promoted, if not
invented, by the Dadaists: the use of collage and assemblage; the
application of aleatory techniques; the tapping of the artistic resources of
the indigenous cultures of Africa, America, and Oceania; the extension of
the notion of abstract art to literature and film; the breaking of the
boundaries separating the different art forms from one another and from
"everyday life"; the notion of art as performance; the expropriation of
elements of popular culture; the notion of interaction or confrontation with
the audience--everything which defines what we loosely call the
"avant-garde." One would be hard pressed to name and artistic movement since
1923 which does not, at least in part, trace its roots to Dada: Surrealism,
Constructivism, Lettrism, Fluxus, Pop- and Op-Art, Conceptual Art,
Minimalism. But the effects of Dada are not limited to the world of the
arts; its impact on contemporary life has been felt from the streets of
Chicago to Madison Avenue. The style of political protest which came to the
forefront in the late sixties--mock trials, Yippies, Guerrilla theater--can
readily be traced back to the actions of the Dadaists in Zurich, Berlin, and
Paris during and after the First World War. And commercial advertising as we
know it today is indebted to the Dadaists' experiments with collage and
typography; indeed, two members of the Berlin Dada group founded a "Dada
Advertising Agency," and the Hanover Dadaist Kurt Schwitters designed
newspaper and magazine advertisements which pioneered techniques which we
now take for granted.

But beyond the inherent importance of the Dada movement, there are
particularly urgent reasons why a Dada Archive is vital at this moment in
history. The artist and writers of Dadaism did not aim to create eternal
works of art and literature; they wanted to open the way to a new art and a
new society by undermining and exposing what they saw as the stale cultural
conventions of a decayed European civilization which had led the world into
the conflagration of the Great War of 1914-18. The record of their effort is
of immeasurable interest; but by the very nature of their program, the
Dadaists left the documentation of their movement to the mercy of the winds
of chance. The record of an art which values action over stability, the
moment of interaction or confrontation between artist and public over the
eternity of a published poem or an artwork in a museum, is in danger of
disappearing forever. The Dadaists did publish books which can be found in
libraries, create paintings and sculptures which are displayed in the major
museums of two continents. But the real spirit of Dada was in events:
cabaret performances, demonstrations, declarations, confrontations, the
distributions of leaflets and of small magazines and newspapers which
appeared for one or two issues, and actions which today we would call
guerrilla theater. But the documentation of these events was by no means as
careful as that of the "Conceptual Art" and the "happenings" of the sixties
and seventies. The documentation does exist--in announcements and programs
of performances, in throwaway leaflets, in newspaper accounts, in the
diaries and correspondence of the participants, their associates and
audiences--but it has never until now been collected and made easily
available to those who study the movement. (1) Add to all this the fact that
these documents were written or printed on the poor-quality paper of the
World War I era, and the ephemeral nature of the record becomes still more
striking. These documents must be preserved and at the same time made
available to scholars. This task is one being undertaken at The University
of Iowa.

And why Iowa? One answer lies in a clear affinity between the Dada movement
and this University. The internationalist, multilingual, multimedia nature
of Dada makes Iowa, with its International Writers' Program, its Writers'
Workshop, its Center for Global Studies, its Translation Workshop and
Center, its dynamic programs in music, dance, art, theater, film,
literature, and languages, an especially appropriate place to house the Dada
Archive. A brief glance at the history of Dada will make this affinity
clear. (2)

The movement was founded in 1916 in Zurich, a neutral city in the middle of
a war-torn Europe, by a group of exiles from countries on both sides of the
conflict. Some were draft dodgers; most were pacifists; all found refuge on
Swiss soil and were outraged by the slaughter taking place on all sides. In
February, in a tavern a few paces from Lenin's home in exile, Hugo Ball,
Emmy Hennings, Tristan Tzara, and others founded the Cabaret Voltaire,
dedicated to presenting, in Ball's words, "the ideals of culture and of art
as a program for a variety show." (3) Some two months later, under
circumstances about which the participants themselves have never agreed, the
name "Dada" was chosen for the movement which was growing out of the
cabaret's activities. (The most popular version of the story is that the
word was picked at random from a French-German dictionary. For decades
afterwards, the founders disagreed as violently--or as gleefully--about the
meaning of the word as about the manner of its discovery.) The evenings at
the cabaret, prototypes for Dada performances throughout Europe, combined
presentations of the art, drama, and poetry of the different avant-gardes
which had swept the continent since the turn of the century--Cubism,
Expressionism, Futurism--with the often chaotic, often whimsical creations
of the Zurich Dadaists themselves. Poems were recited simultaneously in
French, German, and English. Ball, dressed, in a bizarre cardboard costume,
chanted his sound poetry. Richard Huelsenbeck punctuated the proceedings
with a continual drumbeat. It would be hard for us to find much that was
overtly political in the early Dada performances and publications, but from
the beginning the movement dedicated itself to attacking the cultural values
which its members believed had led to the world war. The tools for this
attack, radical at the time, are familiar to us all as the most basic
concepts of the modern arts: chance, collage, abstraction, audience
confrontation, eclectic typography, sound and visual poetry, simultaneity,
the presentation and emulation of tribal art--all things which we have taken
for granted since the sixties at latest.

When the war ended and it was again possible to travel freely, the majority
of the Dadaists left Switzerland and spread their movement throughout
Europe, most notably to Berlin and Paris. In Berlin, during the closing
months of the war, Richard Huelsenbeck joined forces with a group of writers
and artists on the fringes of the Expressionist movement who eagerly adapted
the name and spirit of Dada. The situation there was radically different
from that in staid, peaceful, affluent Zurich. Following the collapse of the
German Empire, society was in a state of complete disorder. A variety of
leftist factions battled the forces of the still unstable Weimar Republic.
Poverty was everywhere. In this context, the majority of the Berlin Dadaists
opted for an overtly political movement, vaguely allied with the factions of
the left. But their techniques, logical extensions of the cabaret programs
of the Zurich years, were hardly those of orthodox communism. Various
members disrupted services at the Berlin cathedral, demonstrated at the
National Assembly at Weimar, distributed leaflets and manifestoes expounding
a series of increasingly bizarre and whimsical demands, displayed posters
consisting of randomly arranged letters of the alphabet, and even declared a
section of Berlin to be an independent "Dada Republic." They also engaged in
more ostensibly conventional activities--theater and cabaret performances,
lecture tours, exhibitions, the publication of books and periodicals--but
always with a flair for the unexpected, the unconventional. Their journals
would appear for one or two numbers, hastily distributed to outrace the
censors, and once banned by the authorities, reappear under new titles. The
biting caricatures of George Grosz and the photomontages of Raoul Hausmann
and John Heartfield satirized in a far-from-gentle manner the contradictions
and injustices of German society in this crucial transitional period.
Unfortunately, the faith of these Berlin Dadaists in the avant-garde's role
in the German revolution was as mistaken as that of the Russian avant-garde
in the new Bolshevik regime at about the same time. Where the Bolsheviks
mercilessly crushed the Russian avant-garde, the German Communists, whose
revolution was defeated, merely abandoned the Dadaists. Some of the Berlin
participants, like Grosz, Heartfield, and Wieland Herzfelde, lost patience
with the apparent lack of seriousness on the part of their colleagues and
devoted themselves to more orthodox modes of political action and
propaganda. The others, after the demise of Berlin Dada, followed their own
independent directions.

In Paris, meanwhile, Tristan Tzara served an emissary role similar to that
of Huelsenbeck in Berlin. His arrival from Zurich had been joyfully awaited
by a group of young French writers connected with
thereview_Littérature--among them Louis Aragon, André Breton, and Paul
Eluard. These men and their colleagues sponsored a series of public
performances which included readings of manifestoes, performances of plays,
skits, and music, and most importantly (and in true Dada tradition),
confrontation and undercutting of the audience's expectations. Announcements
of these events would promise such treats as the "presentation of Dada's
sex" and the head shaving of all the leading Dadaists. The public which came
in the vain expectation that these promises would be kept provided the sort
of violent reaction in which the members of the Paris movement, and
especially Tzara, so delighted. Dada achieved its greatest "successes" in
Paris; it was reported and hotly debated not only in small literary reviews,
but also in the major newspapers and magazines, as well as in every café in
the city. Its performances were well attended, if often by largely hostile
audiences. The Dadaists, after all, were not looking for approval from the
public; they wished to provoke them, to confront them, to make them think,
notice, react. It is in these terms that their success must be measured; and
success, for a time, they had. But like the Berlin movement, Paris Dada was
soon split. The Littérature group grew tired of Tzara's anarchistic
approach, which, to them, soon became repetitious. Eventually it was the
different factions of Dadaists who interrupted one another's events. Breton
and his associates went on to seek a more "positive" approach to the
problems raised by Dada; by the end of 1923, Dada in Paris had given way to
the new Surrealism, which had assimilated many aspects of Dada's program and

Since the legendary Armory Show of 1913, the exhibition which introduced
modern art to America, there had existed in New York a group of French and
American artists and writers whose ideas and methods were in many ways
parallel to those of the movement developing in Zurich. New York, like
Zurich, was a haven for European refugees from the war. Attracted to the
circle of the photographer Alfred Stieglitz and the poet-businessman Walter
Conrad Arensberg, artists such as Marcel Duchamp, Man Ray, and Francis
Picabia shared many notions remarkably similar to those of the Dadaists:
interest in primitive art, the adoption of photographic materials for
artistic purposes the artistic treatment (sometimes exalting, sometimes
ironic) of the machine, the utilization of chance and found objects. After
the war, Picabia visited Zurich and then became a key figure in Paris Dada;
Duchamp, visiting Paris, also had extensive contact with the Dadaists.
Recognizing the affinity of this movement with the activities of the
Stieglitz and Arensberg circles, the French artists persuaded the New York
group to become an "official" Dada center. Based more on private gatherings
than on the public performances around which Dada in Zurich, Berlin, and
Paris revolved, this "official" New York Dada movement lasted less than a
year and published only a single issue of its review. But its participants
have continued to exert a profound influence on the arts in America and
France down to the present time. American poets, composers, and painters
like William Carlos Williams, e. e. cummings, George Antheil, and Charles
Sheeler, while never direct participants in the movement, display in their
works numerous telltale signs of their contact with the New York and Paris
Dadaists. (Indeed, visitors to the Cedar Rapids Museum of Art will find that
even Iowa's own Grant Wood, who was in Paris during part of the Dada era,
created some machine constructions and other works which show distinct
traces of the Dada spirit!)

Dada centers sprouted throughout and beyond Europe. In Hanover, Kurt
Schwitters's collage art and poetry, based on the simplest materials of
everyday life (string, newspaper headlines, streetcar tickets) was too
"bourgeois" for some of the more narrowly political Berlin Dadaists; so he
embodied the spirit of Dada in his own, one-man movement, which he called
"Merz"--a meaningless syllable taken from the middle of the name of a major
Hanover bank. At the same time, Schwitters collaborated in performance and
lecture tours with members of the Berlin group like Raoul Hausmann, Hannah
Höch, and Johannes Baader, whose notions of Dada were more akin to his own.
In Cologne, Hans Arp, Max Ernst, and Johannes Baargeld ("John Cash"--a
pseudonym, of course) were the central figures in a movement which focused
on provocative, collaborative artworks. Their chief publication, Der
Ventilator, was banned by the British occupation forces after five issues.
Their most notorious exhibition was held in the courtyard of a brewery and
reached through the men's restroom; it included some of the most shocking of
all Dada constructions, and Max Ernst obligingly provided a hatchet with
which viewers were told to destroy his sculpture. A Dutch Dada movement
developed in tandem with De Stijl, a school of design and architecture whose
emphasis on simplicity, geometry, and primary colors has affected the
appearance of every major city in the world. Elsewhere, writers and artists
took up the call of Dada in places as remote as Croatia, Argentina, and

By 1923 Dada was, for all practical purposes, dead as a movement. Most of
its participants, however, continued to be active, artistically and
otherwise, for the better part of the next 50 years. They took an astounding
variety of social and artistic directions, from religious conversion (Hugo
Ball) to direct action on behalf of political movements of the left and the
right (John Heartfield, Wieland Herzfelde, Franz Jung, Julius Evola).
Richard Huelsenbeck became a New York psychiatrist, George Grosz an American
landscape artist. Some went on to found new artistic movements (most notably
the Paris Dadaists turned French Surrealists); others, like Hausmann and
Schwitters, working in relative isolation, took independent, often eccentric
artistic directions. But almost all of them were strongly shaped by the
movement in which they participated between 1915 and 1923. By the 1940s,
mainly as a result of the Second World War, a large number of the former
Dadaists had come to live in the United States, repeating the exile that had
brought many of them together in Zurich and New York 25 years earlier. Among
those who remained as permanent residents were Marcel Duchamp, Max Ernst,
George Grosz, Richard Huelsenbeck, and Hans Richter. This coming together of
the old clan marks the beginning of a surge of interest in the movement
which had been largely forgotten even though its influence was present
everywhere. A key event in this renewal of interest was the publication in
1951 of Robert Motherwell's anthology The Dada Painters and Poets. This
book, edited by one of the leading American painters of the mid-century,
constituted the first real acknowledgment of the definitive role Dada had
played in shaping twentieth-century art.

The interest in Dada's historical role has continued to grow from the late
forties to the present. Two particularly significant events occurred at The
University of Iowa in 1978. In that year, the Program in Comparative
Literature and the School of Art and Art History, with the cooperation of
other academic departments, the Museum of Art, and the University Libraries,
sponsored an international conference on Dada and an exhibition entitled
"Dada Artifacts." It was this pair of events which led directly to the
establishment of the Dada Archive and Research Center at The University of
Iowa. By the end of the conference, the prominent scholars who had come from
around the world to participate had agreed on the need for a single
institution which would gather the widely scattered documentation of the
Dada movement, preserve that documentation for posterity, and disseminate it
to the international community. It was initially proposed to house such an
archive at the Center for Twentieth Century Studies at the University of
Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Unfortunately, with the death of Professor Michel
Benamou, the director of the center in Milwaukee, it became impossible to
establish the archive there. The responsibility then fell clearly on the
University of Iowa, where numerous faculty members and graduate students had
strong research interests in Dada and where the 1978 conference and
exhibition had been held. Furthermore, in preparing the "Dada Artifacts"
exhibition, it had been learned that the Special Collections Department of
the University Libraries already has extensive holdings of rare items from
the Dada period, including many of the highly ephemeral periodicals such as
Dada, Littérature, and Merz. So, under the direction of Professors Rudolf
Kuenzli of Comparative Literature and Stephen Foster of Art History, the
Dada Archive and Research Center was established in 1979.

The center has been involved in a number of vital and exciting programs and
activities, among which are additional conferences on Dada and on the
avant-garde in general, team-taught interdisciplinary courses, various
publications including the journal Dada/Surrealism, and a collection of
first-generation slides of visual works (originally known as the
Photodocumentary Archive, now the Fine Arts Dada Archive.) Proposed future
projects include additional publications and research fellowships for
scholars wishing to work at the center. The remainder of this article,
however, will be devoted to a description of the project with which the
University Libraries are directly involved: the International Dada Archive
(originally known as the Literary Archive).

Under the direction of Professor Kuenzli and the curatorship of Timothy
Shipe, the activities of the International Dada Archive have been made
possible through generous financial support by various agencies of the
University, The University of Iowa Foundation, the Jerome Foundation, and
the National Endowment for the Humanities. In addition, the administration
and staff of the University Libraries have given their full cooperation in
countless ways; the project would have been inconceivable without this
enthusiastic support.

The purpose of the archive is to preserve and disseminate the written
documentation of the Dada movement, whether it relates to literature,
painting, film, or any of the arts. Gathering the written documentation of
Dada has involved three distinct but related projects. The first is the most
extensive bibliographic search ever undertaken for published material
relating to the Dada movement and to the individual participants. This
includes all of the books written by the individual Dadaists, their
contributions to books and periodicals, books which they illustrated, the
small magazines which emerged from various centers of the movement,
exhibition catalogs, and all sorts of secondary literature about the
movement and the individual artists-all relevant material published from
1915 to the present, whether in the form of books, parts of books, or
articles in periodicals. The resulting catalog constitutes, in effect, the
definitive bibliography of the movement.

The bibliographic information thus gathered has been used in carrying out
the second project: an inventory of published materials relating to Dada
currently housed in the University Libraries, and a systematic program for
acquiring the material which the libraries do not yet own. Even before the
archive was founded, Iowa's holdings in the field were among the most
extensive in the world. The items turned up in the inventory included
numerous rare first editions. Among the gems already in Special Collections
were complete runs of many of the original Dada periodicals, as well as
Marcel Duchamp's so-called Green Box, a container holding facsimiles of
manuscript fragments of notes on his glass masterpiece, The Bride Stripped
Bare by Her Bachelors, Even, and intended to be the literary version of that
work. The gathering of the published material not already in the collections
has been accomplished partly through the libraries' regular acquisitions
program and partly through the Dada Archive's own funding sources. The
materials thus acquired are housed in the appropriate locations in the
library system--chiefly in Special Collections, the Art Library, and the
stacks of the Main Library. There is also some nonprint material, such as a
recording of the complete music of Marcel Duchamp in the Music Library and a
nearly complete collection of Dada films in Media Services.

The result of these two projects has been a collection of published Dada
documents unequaled anywhere in the world. There is virtually no relevant
book or journal which a scholar cannot find at The University of Iowa. But
the most valuable aspect of the word of the Dada Literary Archive, the part
which makes it a truly unique international resource, is the project of
microfilming manuscripts and ephemera housed in public and private
collections scattered throughout Europe and North America. By using a
portable microfilm camera, Professor Kuenzli was able to photograph material
which would otherwise have been unavailable because of the scarcity of
commercial microfilming services in Europe and the understandable reluctance
of some collectors to allow valuable items to leave their custody. The
sources of the manuscripts ranged from the world's great art libraries to
the proverbial shoe boxes beneath widow's beds; and the filming took place
under the best and the most difficult conditions, from well-lighted research
rooms to kitchen tables in remote Alpine villages. The one common
denominator, though, has been the incredible cooperativeness and interest in
the project on the part of the owners and curators of the material. This is
certainly owing in part to the fact that, by making their irreplaceable
manuscripts available for inspection on microfilm, they will spare the
original documents the wear of frequent use, a use which, no matter how
careful and responsible, is bound to cause further deterioration. In the
case of private owners, most of whom are heirs of major Dada figures, the
microfilming also means that they will be spared the responsibility of
opening the material to scholars, answering their countless questions, and
often allowing them into their homes to consult the manuscripts. Beyond
this, however, most of the public and private curators of these documents
have themselves a deep interest in the Dada phenomenon and are eager to
assist in a project which will facilitate knowledge and understanding of the

The materials on these films, which are carefully kept in a fireproof vault
in Special Collections, constitute the most complete collection of the
unpublished documentation of Dada in the world. A conservative estimate of
the archive's present manuscript holdings would be 25,000 items (100,000
frames), including correspondence, literary manuscripts, drawings and
sketchbooks, diaries, drafts of programs, invitations and manifestoes,
personal reminiscences, film scripts, and descriptions and inventories of
artworks. The microfilms also contain many books and periodicals so rare
that it would have been impossible to obtain original editions for the
University Libraries. Until now, the greatest strength of the collection has
been in manuscripts of the German Dadaists--precisely that area for which
the available documentation has been the scantiest, in large part because of
the ravages of the Second World War. The collection is especially strong in
manuscripts of Jean (or Hans) Arp, Johannes Baader, Hugo Ball, George Grosz,
Raoul Hausmann, John Heartfield, Hannah Höch, Richard Huelsenbeck, Hans
Richter, Kurt Schwitters, and Christof Spengemann, representing primarily
the Dada centers in Berlin, Hanover, and Zurich.

Several tools have been developed to provide control of and access to the
holdings of the International Dada Archive. The key to all of its resources
is a card catalog of the entire collection. Organized by names of individual
Dadaists and by a few broad subject headings, the catalog serves as a guide
to all material related to Dada anywhere in the University Libraries,
regardless of type (books, journal articles, manuscripts, ephemera) and
location (Main Library stacks, microfilms in Special Collections, the Art
Library, or any of the other departmental libraries). A researcher working
on, say, Raoul Hausmann--a typical Dadaist in that he was a painter,
monteur, sculptor, photographer, and writer of poetry, fiction and essays in
German, French, and English--will consult the catalog and be guided to
books, articles, manuscripts, diaries, and letters written by and to
Hausmann, exhibition catalogs, and secondary literature about Hausmann. Once
funds are available for retrospective conversion of the card catalog, an
online catalog will be made available over the Internet.

February 2000 update: On February 3, 2000 the online catalog of the
International Dada Archive became available to the public. Known as the
International Online Bibliography of Dada, the online catalog currently
includes approximately thirty percent of the titles in the Archive's card
catalog. Click here for more information.

In addition to the card catalog, a series of finding aids has been produced
for the public and private collections that were microfilmed by the Archive.
These inventories are frame by frame listings of the contents of the
microfilms. The finding aids are being scanned, and will be made available
on the International Dada Archive's web site.

The International Dada Archive is an invaluable resource both to the
students and faculty of The University of Iowa and to the large community of
Dada scholars throughout the world. For a wide range of literary and art
historians interested in the avant-garde and the development of
twentieth-century art, Iowa is already becoming synonymous with Dada. The
activities of the International Dada Archive fit perfectly within the lively
context of the arts in Iowa City, where poets, novelists, playwrights,
musicians, filmmakers, dancers, and plastic artists, as well as critics and
scholars, interact in a manner worthy of Zurich, Berlin, or Paris in the
heyday of Dada.

This is a revised version of an article that was originally published under
the title "The Dada Archive" in Books at Iowa, no. 39. November 1983.

Click here for a listing of writers and artists associated with the Dada

(1) The few published collections of Dada documents have been eagerly
received by literary and art historians, as well as by the general public.
Robert Motherwell's The Dada Painters and Poets, 2nd ed. (Cambridge: Harvard
University Press, 1989), which first appeared in 1951, was an American
painter's tribute to the movement which was so important in shaping his own
generation of artists; it is surely one of the most influential
retrospective collections of documents ever assembled in any field. A series
edited by Arturo Schwarz, "Documenti e periodici dada" (Milan: Mazzotta,
1970) documented the movement in each of the major centers, chiefly through
handsome reprints of the many Dada periodicals.

(2) Some of the best introductions in English for the general reader are
memoirs of the participants themselves: Flight Out of Time by Hugo Ball, ed.
John Elderfield, trans. Ann Raimes (New York: Viking Press, 1974), Memoirs
of a Dada Drummer by Richard Huelsenbeck, ed. Hans J. Kleinschmidt, trans.
Joachim Neugroschel (1974; rpt. Berkeley: University of California Press,
1991), and Dada: Art and Anti-Art by Hans Richter, trans. David Britt (1965;
rpt. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978). Another important overview is
Dada: Monograph of a Movement ed. Willy Verkauf (1957; rpt. London: Academy
Editions; New York: St. Martin's Press, 1975). Finally, two excellent
sources are products of the Dada conference and exhibition held at The
University of Iowa in 1978: the exhibition catalog Dada Artifacts (Iowa
City: The University of Iowa Museum of Art, 1978) and the collection of
essays Dada Spectrum, ed. Stephen C. Foster and Rudolf E. Kuenzli (Madison,
Wisconsin: Coda Press; Iowa City: The University of Iowa, 1979). Other
sources which I have consulted include Hugo Ball and Emmy Hennings, Damals
in Zürich (Zurich: Verlag der Arche, 1978); Allan Carl Greenberg, Artists
and Revolution (Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1980); Raoul Hausmann, Am
Anfang war Dada, ed. Karl Riha and Günter Kämpf (1972; rev. ed. Giessen:
Anabas, 1992); Richard Huelsenbeck, ed., Dada Almanach (1921; rpt. New York:
Something Else Press, 1966) (English transl. ed. Malcolm Green under the
title Dada Almanac (London: Atlas Press, 1993); Walter Mehring, Berlin Dada
(Zurich: Verlag der Arche, 1959); Karl Riha and Hanne Bergius, eds., Dada
Berlin (Stuttgart: Reclam, 1977); and Michel Sanouillet, Dada à Paris (1965;
rpt. Paris: Flammarion, 1993).

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> Date: Wed, 28 Jun 2000 00:52:59 GMT
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