Bartolomé Esteban Murillo ( 1618-1682 )
geboren 1. 1. 1618 in Sevilla; gest. 3.4. 1682 , Sevilla -war ein spanischer Maler des Barock.
Der Schwerpunkt seiner Arbeit war Madonnen- und Heiligenmalerei; seine Milieuschilderungen seiner Vaterstadt Sevilla zeigen Szenen mit Straßenjungen und Bettelkindern.
Die Barock-Epoche, in der Murillo lebte, fiel in Spanien zeitlich genau mit der glorreichsten Zeit des Landes zusammen. Die Kunst dieser Epoche hatte ihren Schwerpunkt vor allem in sinnlichen Motiven, während die Kunst in der Klassik vor allem realistische Motive zum Thema hatte. Vor allem in Spanien bedeutete dies einen großen Schritt in der Entwicklung einer eigenständigen spanischen Kunst. Die Ergebnisse des extremen Realismus und der inneren Spiritualität sieht man vor allem in den religiösen Skulpturen von Juan Martínez Montañés, Alonso Cano, und Pedro de Mena. In der Malerei waren die bedeutendsten Künstler Bartolomé Estéban Murillo, Jusepe de Ribera, Diego Velázquez und Francisco de Zurbarán. In ihren Werken erkennt man den Naturalismus der Zeit, das dramatische Licht, die effektvollen Schattenspiele und die farbliche Nüchternheit, ein Element, dass eine Verbindung zu den düsteren Paletten Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggios und anderen italienischen Künstlern herstellte.
Im hohen Alter stürzte er bei der Arbeit in einer Kirche von einer Leiter und starb an den Folgen des Unfalls.
Bartolomé Esteban Murillo was the youngest of fourteen children of a Sevillian barber, Gaspar Esteban, and his wife Maria Peres. In 1627, his father died, a year later he lost his mother. Murillo's elder sisters and brothers were already grown up and could take care of themselves, while the 10 year old Bartolomé was adopted into the family of his aunt, married to a wealthy Sevillian doctor.
Murillo was apprenticed early to a painter Juan del Castillo (1584-1640). When, in 1639, Castillo left Seville for Cadiz, Murillo did not enter any workshop of a known artist, as it was the traditional way of all the beginners, but preferred to stay independent. It is said that to gain a living Murillo started to make sargas - cheap paintings on rough canvas sold at country fairs, and shipped to America by traders. Obviously his paintings appealed to the taste of the public, besides they revealed a certain talent of the young man. That was why the Franciscan monastery in Seville commissioned this unknown artist with a cycle of 11 paintings with scenes from the lives of Franciscan saints, which, after their execution, brought Murillo fame. The artist dated his works very seldom. The first dated canvas belongs to the cycle for the Franciscan Monastery: one of the paintings is dated 1646, thus the whole series is usually dated 1645-46. But some art historians consider that the work took a longer period, of approximately 1642-1646. The canvases of the cycle are executed in different styles; thus some art historians consider that Cuisine of Angels (Miracle of St. Diego de Alcada) was inspired by Rivera; Death of St. Clara was influenced by van Dyck; and Velazquez had an effect on St. Diego Giving Charity. Even if it is really so, no wonder, the young artist was studying, during this long work his own style of soft forms and warm colors was being formed.
At some point in his life, probably in the late 1640s, Murillo is believed to have visited Madrid. In any case, after 1650 his style changed, which might be the result of his meeting with Velazquez and studying of the works of Titian, Rubens, and Van Dyck in the royal collections in Madrid.
On February 26, 1645 Murillo married Beatrice Sotomajor-i-Cabrera; soon their first daughter, named Maria, was born (died 1650). In 1647-1654 the artist painted a lot of 'Madonnas', small in size, the canvases were aimed for home altars: Madonna of the Rosary, Madonna and Child.
Already in his early religious paintings for the Franciscans Murillo widely used the genre scenes, which soon became a separate subject in his works: The Beggar Boy (1650), Grape and Melon Eaters. (c.1650), The Little Fruit Seller. (c.1670-1675) etc. Today considered somewhat sentimental, his genre scenes nevertheless represent a new way of perception. Murillo's 'children', as well as his 'Madonnas', very soon became popular not only in Spain. Thanks to them he was the first Spanish painter to achieve widespread European fame. To the 1650s, also belong many of his portraits. Unfortunately, we do not know anything about the depicted people, even when they are identified, and we know their names.
With fame and multiple commissions the financial position of the artist became secured. It is known that in 1657 Murillo invested big money in a trade company in the New World, he bought slaves for his household. In 1662, he was admitted to several religious organizations of Seville. These organizations reminded in their structure and activities the later mason loges. Murillo also took an active part in the social life of his city. Thus he was one of the founders of the Academy of Fine Arts in Seville, which was opened in 1660, with Murillo as its first president.
In January 1664, Murillo buried his wife. Though 20 years of his life were still ahead, and during these 20 years he would painted 2/3 of all his known works, Murillo would never fully recover from this blow. During 1664, he could not work, at the end of the year he moved with all his surviving children (Jose Esteban, aged 14, Francisca Maria, aged 9, Gabriel, aged 8, Gaspar Esteban, aged 2, and infant Maria) into the Convent of Capuchins.
From 1665 to 1682, he painted many of his major religious works, such as those for the Santa Maria la Blanca (1665), of the Caridad Hospital (1670-74), of the Capuchins (1676), of the Venerables Sacerdotes (1678), of the Augustinians (1680), and, lastly, of the Cadiz Capuchins, together with a large number of pictures made at different times for the Cathedral of Seville or other churches and many devotional works for private individuals.
A legend says that the artist died in poverty. It does contradict with the fact of many commissions he had, more close to the truth is the version that he gave off his money as charitable contributions to the religious organizations of which he was the member. The story about Murillo's death sounds like a legend. Murrilo accepted commission from the Capuchin church in Cadiz. For the first time in his life he went to decorate another city. While working on the Marriage of St. Catherine (1682) Murillo fell from the scaffold, in critical condition he was brought to his native Seville, where he soon died, on April 13, 1682.
After his death he left very modest private property, but many pupils and innumerable followers. His works influenced later Spanish painting and anticipated 18th-century European Rococo painting.
The Dream of the Patrician. The Patrician Juan and His Wife Reveal His Dream to Pope Liberius. The composition was executed for the church of Santa-Maria la Blanca. A legend says that in 352 the Roman Pope Liberius saw in his dream Madonna, who ordered him to build a temple for her at the place where snow would fall. In the morning the Pope had visitors: a Roman patrician Juan, with his wife, who said that he had seen Madonna in his dream and now he and his wife were ready to contribute their money to the construction of her new temple.